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Land Trophy
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 >   >   >  (Mammalia) >  (Pinnipedia) >  , ()

, ()

, ()
Halichoerus grypus ( grypus )
      - VERTEBRATA
: - Pinnipedia
: - Phocidae
: Halichoerus
: Erxleben, 1777
: 3 - , ; - , - [1-3,19,20].

 ,   ()
:
- [19]. - , , -, , , , , [20,36-39], - [40]. : , , . , [5,9-12,14,18-20]. - .: , , , , , , - , , , , , , , [4-8]. . - [9], , [10], [11], - (. ) [18].
: [4-5,12-14], - [2,5,10,12-14,19,21,25,38]. , - [27]. , [4-8,12-14,19], [40]. [19]. - [21], - - [22], - - [23], - - [24]. - ; 2-3 , 14.6 ; , , 11.8 ; ; 11.5 ; 6-7 , - 3 [4-8,12-14,19,31]. 2.5 [25], , , [26]. [22], 40-50 , [19]. [29]. 18-61% [25], . 17.2% [19,45]. 1:6.7 [19]. 6-57 [19]. 3-4 , - 4-5 [32], 6 [33]. 6-17% [32]. , , , , , , , , , , [12,20,22,27]. 6-10% [19]. - , [28].
: 130 . , 45 . [28], 76 . - [42], 3.5 . - [44]. 1960 . 500-800 , 100 " " [8], 200 . 70- . 1.5 . [5], 80- . - 3.0-3.5 . , [19,20], 90- . - 3.5-4.0 . [41]. [4,8,10,19]. - [35]. , , , [19,20,31], [31].
: " " 1938 . [16]; 1970 . , 1975 . [17]. [20,45]. 28 [34], - [20].
: 1. , 1963; 2. , 1973; 3. , 1973; 4. ., 1978; 5. ., 1976; 6. , 1941; 7. , 1941; 8. ., 1967; 9. , 1936; 10. , 1978; 11. , 1932; 12. , 1979; 13. ., 1972; 14. ., 1973; 15. , 1958; 16. ., 1969; 17. , 1978; 18. ., 1978; 19. ., 1989; 20. , 1990; 21. Bonner et al., 1972; 22. Einarsson, 1978; 23. Benjaminsen et al., 1978; 24. Boness et al., 1979; 25. Summers et al., 1975; 26. Coulson, 1981; 27. Mansfeld, 1966; 28. Brodie et al., 1983; 29. Matthews, 1950; 30. Bonner et al., 1971; 31. Bonner, 1972; 32. Boyd, 1982; 33. Hever, 1964; 34. Gill et al., 1986; 35. The ease..., 1980; 36. Burton, 1967; 37. Vaughan, 1975; 38. Summers et al., 1979; 39. Cameron, 1967; 40. Prime, 1985; 41. Haug et al., 1994; 42. Anon, 1981; 43. Smith, 1966; 44. Griffiths, 1987; 45. ., 1991.
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